An abstract is a summary of the paper in academic databases and may serve as a standalone information source. The abstract should be sufficient for the reader to grasp the basic argument and significance of the study.  The abstract should be at least 200 words long.

Abstracts should be:

  1. informative (avoiding generality or redundancy);
  2. descriptive (capturing the gist of the paper and the research results);
  3. cohesive (indicate the logical structure of the paper);
  4. interesting (arousing curiosity to engage with the argument more closely)

The abstract should not repeat the paper title. Keywords can and should be taken up.

To ensure stand-alone readability, the abstract should not include:

  1. grammatically complex, long or wordysentences;
  2. uncommon abbreviations;
  3. citations or footnotes;
  4. equations