An abstract is a summary of the paper in academic databases and may serve as a standalone information source. The abstract should be enough for the reader to understand the gist of the study.

Abstracts should be:

  1. informative (must contain no generalities or redundancy);
  2. descriptive (capturing the gist of the paper and the research results);
  3. cohesive (follow the logical structure of the paper);
  4. concise.

The abstract should not repeat or rephrase the paper title. The abstract should be concise and clear and contain no irrelevant information.

The abstract must be cohesive, its sentences logically following one another. Keywords from the paper’s body should be used.

All of the following should be avoided:

  1. complex grammar structures;
  2. uncommon abbreviations;
  3. citations or footnotes;
  4. equations

Authors are encouraged to provide a graphical abstract as a self-explanatory image to appear alongside with the text abstract in the Table of Contents. Figures should be a high quality image in any common image format.